Overview of the Finance Industry
A wide range of professionals across the finance sector are required to complete Continuing Professional Development. CPD is a mandatory obligation to many professional bodies and associations, which includes accountants, tax and financial advisers, wealth planners, investments specialists and insurance professionals
CPD for Accountants
Accountancy CPD requirements can vary from 20 hours per annum up to 45 hours depending on both the accountancy specialism and the specific requirements of the institutional body concerned. The main Accountancy professional bodies requiring CPD include the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), Association of International Accountants (AIA), Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) and the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales (ICAEW).
CPD in the Finance Sector
Finance and Accountancy professionals should identify what additional skills are required to carry out their role effectively as well as build a CPD framework towards future career ambitions. CPD obligations vary within the finance & accountancy sector from 12 hours for a qualifying Institute of Financial Services student up to 35+ hours for fully qualified financial advisers, tax specialists, professional auditors, certified accountants and investments specialists. CPD is not restricted to solely technical advancement, but should also embrace training such as essential management, business and people skills.
CPD for Tax Specialists
Professionals working within the tax area of the finance sector have mandatory CPD requirements to complete every year, of which 15 hours must be obtained from a structured training environment for members of the Association of Tax Technicians, and 20 hours for members of the Chartered Institute of Taxation.
CPD for Finance & Investment Advisers
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has prescribed a minimum amount of CPD per year for finance and investment professionals. For example, the Institute of Financial Services (IFS) expects finance professionals to complete a minimum of 35 hours CPD learning every 12 months, of which 21 hours should be obtained from a structured training environment.
CPD for Auditors & Actuarial Professionals
Both auditors and actuarial professionals are required to complete regular CPD in order to maintain competencies
CPD for Insurance Specialists
All qualified members of the Chartered Insurance Institute (CII) are required to comply with the CII CPD scheme. Finance professionals working within the Insurance sector are typically expected to complete a minimum 35 hours of CPD (21 hours must be structured CPD) every year matching the annual requirements set by the Financial Conduct Authority.
CPD in the Agriculture & Veterinary sector
Overview of the Agriculture & Veterinary Industry
At June 2012 the Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) was 17.2 million hectares, making up 70 per cent of the total United Kingdom land area. In the UK there are approximately 300,000 active farms with an average size of around 57 hectares. The total farming labour force of 534,000 in 2006 had been broadly stable over the previous five years but was down 80,000 on a decade earlier (www.gov.uk). The veterinary sector is predominantly a science-based profession. The health and welfare of the 20 million pets in the UK is dependent on solid veterinary research & development, and the health and productivity of the more than 36 million of UK breeding stock relies on the expertise of the veterinary sector.
CPD for Vets / Veterinary Surgeons
CPD is a personal obligation of all responsible vets & veterinary surgeons and should be seen as the continuous progression of capability and competence. The recommended minimum CPD completed by a veterinary surgeon is 105 hours over a rolling three year period, averaging at 35 hours per year. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons states “There is more to CPD than undertaking a Certificate or Diploma. CPD is much broader than veterinary medicine and surgery. CPD that is relevant and of benefit to any aspect of a veterinary surgeon’s professional life may be considered to be appropriate and recordable CPD. For example, practice and other management skills, stress management and communication skills are as important as other forms of CPD that relate more directly to veterinary medicine and surgery.”
CPD in the Agriculture & Veterinary Industry
Whilst CPD has always been extremely prevalent in the veterinary field, CPD is now becoming increasingly widespread across all areas of the agriculture sector. Accrediting organisations in the arable, pig, poultry and dairy sectors have been set up to promote and encourage professional standards in farming, and encourage the uptake of Continuing Professional Development. In 2011, the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Advanced Training Partnerships (ATPs) were developed to provide professional development in the area of agriculture and food production for a large number of industry specialists across the UK. Collaboration between training providers and industry partners aims to ensure that high level skills relevant to crops, livestock and food are employed throughout the sector. This development helps to ensure that research done by highly skilled scientists can benefit farmers by being translated into new technologies, practices and advice.
CPD for Veterinary Nurses
Veterinary Nurses are obliged to maintain and continue to develop their professional knowledge and skills. Continuing Professional Development is mandatory for all registered veterinary nurses. The required minimum CPD is 45 hours in any three-year period with an average of 15 hours per year.
CPD for Agriculture Professionals
Agricultural professionals are now expected to commit to a programme of Continuing Professional Development so that they stay up-to-date with all the latest developments Members of the National Register of Sprayer Operators are required to collect 30 or more CPD points in each three-year period to qualify for membership renewal Members of the Pig Industry Professional Register are required to achieve a minimum of 60 CPD points during their three year term of membership.
Overview of the Business Sector
The business sector is a vast field covering an array of both general and specialist areas of expertise and skills. New technologies and the growth of the digital environment, changes in working practice, the perspective of consumer demand and customer service, as well as the ongoing advancement of globalisation, creates new dynamic challenges for the entire business community and the managers & business professionals working within the sector.
As the business sector naturally evolves, as will the need for high skilled business managers & leaders with the skillsets to steer their industry’s forward. However, with this also comes the increase in competition for job roles and functions, and the need for upskilling, practical experienced-based training & education.
CPD for Managers & Directors
Chartered Directors and Managers at both the Chartered Management Institute (CMA) and Institute of Directors (IoD) are expected to complete Continuing Professional Development. A Chartered Director is expected to undertake approximately 30 hours CPD per year, whereas a Charted Manager at the CMA does not have a fixed CPD annual hours requirement but is expected to maintain ongoing CPD records ready for inspection by the professional body.
CPD in the Business Sector
Business professionals who manage their own personal performance can very easily set themselves apart from their competition. CPD can bring direct benefit to both the individual and the organisation as a whole. CPD in the business sector embodies a wide range of formal & informal training, comprising a whole assortment of business skill areas including; sales & marketing, communications, strategy & planning, customer service, public speaking, negotiation skills, leadership, time & project management, as well as many others. CPD enables an individual to build a full portfolio of talents which increases commercial awareness, improves general business acumen and allows any professional manager to bring their very best to the business decision-making process to shape the direction of their organisation. CPD can enable business teams to maximise their performance through collaboration and knowledge sharing. Diversifying business skills provides greater organisational flexibility, and promotes a culture of learning which naturally improves workforce motivation and organisational achievement.
CPD enables an individual to build a full portfolio of talents which increases commercial awareness, improves general business acumen and allows any professional manager to bring their very best to the business decision-making process to shape the direction of their organisation. CPD can enable business teams to maximise their performance through collaboration and knowledge sharing. Diversifying business skills provides greater organisational flexibility, and promotes a culture of learning which naturally improves workforce motivation and organisational achievement.
CPD for Project Managers
The Association of Project Management (APM) considers CPD fundamental to business, and requires Project Managers to complete 35 hours of CPD each year in order to maintain Chartered status.
CPD for Sales & Marketing Professionals
Marketing professionals at the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) have been set a 35 hour annual CPD target through which members should record and document their learning & training activities on a personal CPD record form. The Institute of Sales and Marketing Management recommends sales & marketing professionals complete at least 20 CPD points each year to maintain existing skills and further recommends up to 40 CPD points per year to truly build on existing skillsets.
Overview of the Construction Industry
The construction industry contributed £103 billion to the economy in 2014, which equates to 6.5% of the UK total. The industry employs over 2.1 million people, an impressive 6.3% of total employment. Construction is an extremely large industry, complex and diverse, covering a wide range of activities including house-builders, commercial property developers, designers & architects, materials producers, technicians, specifiers, manufacturers, suppliers, contractors and consultants ("www.parliament.uk":http://www.parliament.uk, No: 01432, 6 Aug 2015).
The Department for Business Innovation & Skills UK Construction Economic Analysis Report (July, 2013) states that the construction industry is one of the largest sectors in the UK but is significantly more fragmented than its main European competitors. Major factors that are creating change in the sector include the ongoing movement towards a globalised market, demand for sustainable development and the technological growth of emerging economies.
CPD in the Construction Industry
The CPD Certification Service works alongside the construction sector to ensure training courses, seminars and learning activities are compatible with Continuing Professional Development policies of the industry. CPD has been long-established within the sector, with all of the industry professional bodies having longstanding CPD requirements in place.
All members of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing & Heating Engineers (CIPHE) are required to participate in Continuing Professional Development, and are currently recommended to obtain 30 hours of CPD on an annual basis. The Chartered Association of Building Engineers (CABE) states that CPD is an essential part of personal development that helps maintain professional status and facilitates learning new ideas from fellow professionals. CABE members are required to complete 35 hours of CPD each year.
The Association of Project Managers (APM) have integrated CPD into the APM FIVE Dimensions of Professionalism, ensuring there is a commitment from all members to lifelong learning. APM members are required to complete 35 hours of CPD from both formal and informal training environments. Chartered Institute of Housing (CIH) members are required to complete at least 20 hours of CPD each year, and the Chartered Institute of Highways & Transportation expect members to obtain at least 25 hours of CPD, spread over a 3 year period.
From an architectural standpoint, both the Chartered Institute of Architectural Technologists (CIAT) and the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) require members to comply with a minimum number of 35 CPD hours each year, of which at least 50% should come from a structured training environment.
CPD in the Design sector
Overview of the Design Industry
The design industry is a vast and varied sector covering a wide range of specialisms including communications design, digital and multimedia design, product, graphics and branding, fashion as well as interior, industrial and architectural design. The UK Design Council states there are over 230,000 designers working in UK, with a combined fee income of over £15bn. As globalisation dissolves market boundaries and naturally increases competition throughout all industries, the design sector continues to thrive through its principles of innovation and creativity.
CPD for Marketers, Digital Marketing & Design
The Institute of Direct & Digital Marketing (IDM) explains “Learning does not stop once you are qualified. Ongoing development must be a high priority, managed in a structured, progressive way. Maintaining CPD is an individual decision marking personal commitment to self-improvement. CPD should not be seen as an additional set of activities to your normal duties and desired learning achievements. CPD is about your awareness and attention to what is important in order to achieve the highest standards in work to ultimately fulfil career potential.”
CPD in the Design Industry
CPD plays an increasingly prevalent role in the design sector as the UK industry evolves further into a knowledge-based economy. The Design Council estimates that approximately 77% of all CPD training within the design sector is completed through a structured learning environment, either computer-based learning, external courses and/or attending events and conferences. Competition and innovation are interrelated with the need for high-skilled professionals, and with this the Design Council states that over half of designers in the UK now hold at least an undergraduate degree. Whilst only 13% of designers take regular formal training, almost four in every ten design consultancies expect new recruits to have completed an undergraduate degree.
CPD for Architectural Design Professionals
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) recommends to get the greatest benefit from CPD an architectural design professional should implement a regular cycle of planning, development and reflection on what has been learnt and how this knowledge is put into practice.
CPD for Interior Design
British Institute of Interior Design (BIID) members are required to accrue a minimum of 20 CPD points each year, which are recorded by the BIID, to demonstrate commitment to furthering knowledge and competence in the industry. The Society of British and International Design (SBID) requires all Accredited Members to undertake Continuing Professional Development to maintain registered status. The SBID believe CPD makes an important contribution to supporting Interior Designers to maintain standards and to protect consumers.
Overview of the Education Sector
Schools, colleges and universities play a vital role in the development of all industries, as the standards of our education system sets the benchmark for future business innovation, change and a professional skilled workforce. The education sector through all ranges and demographics is central to the long-term success of the UK, feeding a continuous flow of high-skilled and knowledgeable individuals for all other industry sectors.
CPD in the Education Sector
The teaching profession, like many other industries, has recognised the need for training in order to keep abreast with new ideas and methodologies. Surprisingly though, CPD is not as clearly defined nor structured as one might expect. Christine Blower, the General Secretary of the National Union of Teachers, said: “Securing the Continuing Professional Development of teachers remains a challenge for the education sector. It is a policy that no government has yet got right. Establishing a right CPD would bring a principle that has had productive effects in other countries. It would serve to strengthen the long-term commitment of teachers.”
Furthermore the Confederation of British Industry explains that “strengthening CPD and career opportunities are crucial strands in re-motivating teachers and improving practice and, as a result, education outcomes. We also need to get away from the feeling that CPD is something ‘done’ to teachers as they are professionals and part of that professionalism should be a sense of personal ownership of development.”
The Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education (ACME) summarise in their report on Continuing Professional Development that the Government should initiate urgently a process of developing & funding a long-term programme of CPD for teachers of mathematics that meets their needs at various stages of their careers.
A new importance has been placed on Continuing Professional Development for teachers in Scotland. CPD is now a statutory component of a teachers’ working life, and with this the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) has released new guidance for teachers looking to engage effectively in the process of CPD. The GTCS explains, “If teachers are to maintain and enhance their professional practice, teachers will need to be making effective use of their CPD. CPD is what you do to keep your professional practice fresh, up-to-date and stimulating. Effective CPD provides the reward of greater professional satisfaction. The more teachers feel this way, the greater the positive impact will be on the ethos in schools and on the profession. Teachers in Scotland are required to undertake 35 hours of CPD per year, based on a mix of personal and school or local authority needs.”
Overview of the Energy Sector
The energy sector is a highly innovative and expansive industry with a sustained focus for alternative power sources, renewable energy solutions and the balance between growing energy demands with local global environment challenges. The UK energy sector employs over 680,000 in a varied array of professions, from oil & gas engineers to nuclear scientists. EU Skills Research states the UK will need to employ another 200,000 people by 2023 to keep up with industry growth and demand.
Over the last 10 years, the UK has made a transition from being a net exporter of energy to having more than 25% of UK energy now imported. The main energy sources for the UK are approximated as Natural Gas & Oil (41%), Coal (31%), Nuclear (18%), Renewables (9%) and other (1%).
Renewable Energy Sector
Renewable energy uses the natural environment to make electricity. Renewable energies include include wind, wave, hydro, biomass and solar power. Renewable energy technologies produce approximately 9% of the UK’s electricity, and EU targets mean that this is likely to increase to 30% by 2020. Renewable energy will become a critical player in the strategy to reduce carbon emissions.
Nuclear Energy Sector
Currently, approximately 18% of UK electricity is provided by nuclear power from the use of 19 reactors across 10 locations. By 2025, the UK is expected to be supplied with around 25% of its energy from nuclear power. In June 2011, eight sites across Britain were chosen as locations for new nuclear stations.
CPD in the Energy Sector
The Code of Conduct maintained by the Energy Institute requires members to make a commitment to Continuing Professional Development. If Energy Institute qualifications are held by any professional under licences from the Engineering Council, Science Council or Society for the Environment, that member must abide by these professional bodies’ regulations for general conduct and CPD requirements. All professional Energy Institute members are expected to keep full records of their CPD. The Energy Institute does not stipulate the minimum number of CPD hours which must be undertaken, but instead, encourage members to focus on the value of learning in relation to their professional development needs. Each year a sample of members will be asked to submit their CPD records for review.
All professional Energy Institute members are expected to keep full records of their CPD. The Energy Institute does not stipulate the minimum number of CPD hours which must be undertaken, but instead, encourage members to focus on the value of learning in relation to their professional development needs. Each year a sample of members will be asked to submit their CPD records for review.
CPD for Energy Assessors
All accredited Energy Assessors are expected to complete 21 hours of CPD every year, of which 10 hours should be obtained in areas of their primary specialism. CPD recording is the responsibility of each individual, with objectives being logged combined with the sum of all hours of learning split between structured and unstructured CPD.
The Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) states, “CPD is a mandatory requirement of the CIBSE Certification Personnel Certification Schemes. Members of these schemes are required to update and enhance their skills continuously to ensure that they keep up with technological developments and the requirements of the Building Regulations and the Energy Performance of Buildings regulations in the UK.”
Overview of the Engineering Industry
Continuing Professional Development is a fundamental part of any career within all disciplines of engineering and ensures engineers keep up to date by improving their skills & knowledge on a regular basis. The Engineering Council states that all members of professional engineering institutions within the engineering sector have obligations to undertake CPD. One of the main functions of the engineering professional bodies is to support the improvement & development of their members. The professional engineering institutions work alongside the Engineering Council to advise on CPD, by providing guidance, resources and mentoring programmes.
CPD in the Engineering Sector
CPD not only develops the engineering sector as a whole, but equally the individual career aspirations of engineers. Engineers are encouraged to take ownership of their learning & skills improvement, as well as their general development requirements. Engineers are advised to build a CPD plan and undertake various activities, record & reflect upon the learning, and evaluate any objectives met against their personal CPD plans. The aim of this CPD approach is to create a conscious attitude to learning that helps engineering professionals personally benefit, in addition to as their employers and society at large. CPD annual requirements vary depending on the engineering discipline placed in the context of the requirements of the institutional body concerned.
Overview of the Fire Industry
In the 2012 Fire Sector Summit, Fire Minister Brandon Lewis congratulated the fire industry for some considerable statistical reductions in fire fatalities and non-fatal casualties. From 2001-2002 to 2011-2012, fatalities and non-fatal casualties reduced 34% and 54% respectively, with total fires falling 6% to 227,000.
The Fire Industry Association (FIA), the largest trade association of the UK fire protection industry in a recent 2015 market conditions report detailed the fire sector continuing to grow which is resulting in an increased need for skilled labour and training. The report explains that 35% of fire industry companies have recruited skilled labour in the past six months, compared to 9% losing skilled people. Furthermore 58% of companies are anticipating an increase in training over the next six months. There is increasing competition in the fire industry, with margins being squeezed by increases in materials and supplier costs. Distinction and competitive advantage is becoming increasingly critical across the private sector of fire protection products and fire safety.
CPD in the Fire Sector
The Institution of Fire Engineers (IFE) has promoted the completion of Continuing Professional Development for all Fire Engineers since 1997, as a way to “further their knowledge, understanding and expertise”. Rather than a prescribed requirement, the IFE recommends as a guide that Fire Engineers complete at least 25 hours of appropriate learning activities through events and courses each year.
The IFE defines the purpose of CPD perfectly in the following; “The pace of technological and social development has quickened and the life span of information is short. Organisational structures typified by hierarchies, specialist departments, apprenticeship and the concept of a planned career for life are disappearing. They are being replaced by “flatter” structures with an emphasis on adaptability, flexibility, team work, personal judgement and the achievement of objectives. The public perception and expectation of professionals has changed leading to the personal characteristics of professionals being re-defined. This cultural change has affected education and training by putting increasing emphasis on competency, vocational training, workplace learning and CPD.”
The Institute of Fire Safety Managers explains that all members should complete Continuing Professional Development activities each year and, whilst this is currently on a voluntary basis, CPD should still be treated seriously and should start immediately when a member joins the Institute.
CPD in the Healthcare & Medical sector
Overview of the Healthcare & Medical Sector
Whether by professional body obligation or as a voluntary option, almost every professional within the medical & healthcare sectors undertakes some form of Continuing Professional Development. Many countries already have established CPD in the medical & healthcare sectors, with more countries taking steps towards a national CPD framework.
CPD can be defined as the continuing education of healthcare professionals following the completion of formal training. The Department of Health states; “In the NHS, CPD is determined through appraisals with personal development plans agreed between individuals and their managers. A key development in ensuring that healthcare professionals maintain their competence is the move among regulatory bodies to develop CPD strategies for the revalidation/re-certification of their members.”
CPD for the Healthcare & Medical Sector
There are over 30 professional bodies and associations within the healthcare & medical sectors all with implemented CPD policies. Professional bodies in the healthcare & medical sectors requiring CPD include; British Medical Association, General Medical Council, General Dental Council, British Dental Association, Royal College of Nursing, Institute of Nursing, Nurses & Midwives Council, British Psychological Society, Health and Care Professions Council, Royal College of Physicians, National Pharmaceutical Association and the General Optical Council.
The General Medical Council states;" Continuing Professional Development and Continuing Medical Education are frequently used interchangeably, most literature has now defined CME as being an ingredient of CPD. CPD is a process that includes continuing medical education. Many countries are now moving from a knowledge and skills-based CME system, towards a system that promotes the wide-ranging competencies needed to practice high quality medicine."
CPD for Doctors / Surgeons / Physicians
All licensed practicing doctors, surgeons and physicians are expected to complete annual CPD in order to keep up to date and be seen as fit for practice. Good medical practice requires doctors, surgeons and physicians to be responsible for identifying their CPD needs, plan how these are addressed, and partake in CPD activities which should maintain and improve the standards of their work.
Doctors must complete revalidation every 5 years, which includes providing evidence that CPD has been completed. Specific CPD requirements for specific professions such as for surgeons and physicians are outlined by the appropriate Royal Colleges of Medicine in their respective fields. Typically doctors, surgeons and physicians are expected to complete a minimum of 250 hours of CPD over a 5 year period, averaging out as 50 hours per annum.
CPD for Opticians / Optometrists
The General Optical Council states that fully-qualified optometrists and opticians must complete Continuing Education and Training (CET) on a scheme run over a 3 year period. Optometrists must complete 36 CET points over the 3 year period. Opticians and Optometrists are expected to manage their CET points over the 3 year period, completing a minimum of 6 CET points in any given year. However the number of points awarded for a CET activity does not relate to the time duration of the activity. CET points reflect the level of engagement required and the extent to which the activity supports reflection. The GOC example explains that peer discussion and clinical skills training would carry more CET points than attendance at lectures or article-based study.
CPD for Nurses / Nursing / Midwives
CPD is considered by the Royal College of Nursing as a fundamental element to the role of any nurse by which high quality patient care is identified, maintained and developed. The Royal College of Nursing considers 45 hours of CPD suitable in any given year, and the Nurses & Midwives Council state all midwives and nurses must undertake at least 35 hours of relevant learning every 3 years.
CPD for Dentists
Dentists and dental professionals are required to undertake Continuing Professional Development to maintain registration at the General Dental Council, which includes learning activities that contribute to professional development relevant to their practice, and maintains the GDC Standards of patient protection. Dentists must complete at least 250 hours of CPD every five years, of which 75 hours should be verifiable CPD in recommended topic areas. Dental Professionals must complete 150 hours of CPD every five years, of which 50 hours should be verifiable CPD in recommended topic areas.
CPD for Pharmaceutical / Pharmacists / Pharmacy
The General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC) is the regulator for pharmacists and pharmacy professionals in England, Scotland and Wales. The CPD requirements set by the GPhC apply equally to all pharmacy professionals. The GPhC encourages pharmacists & pharmaceutical professionals to complete a variety of learning over a five year period which includes both formal CPD and experiential learning. The scheme for pharmacy professionals focuses on the CPD cycle of reflection, planning, action and evaluation and expects pharmacists & pharmaceutical professionals to make at least nine entries in their CPD record per year.
CPD for Psychiatrists / Psychology
Psychiatrists are expected to complete 50 credits of CPD every year, and meet with an associated peer group for discussion at least 4 times per year. Of these 50 credits, Psychiatrists involved in clinical practice must complete 30 hours of clinical CPD from this quota. The British Psychology Society recommends members complete between ½ – 1 full days of CPD every month.
CPD in the Hospitality sector
Overview of the Hospitality Industry
The hospitality sector is a substantial contributor to the UK economy. For example, there are approximately 10,000 hotel businesses in the UK contributing to around £18 billion. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has calculated that hotels and restaurants, together with distribution, make up 18% of the entire UK services industry.
The British Hospitality Association (BHA) is the private sector forum for the 6th largest contributor to export earnings and 4th largest employer in the UK. Approximately 3 million people, or 10% of the workforce and over 180,000 businesses work within the overall UK hospitality industry. BHA, together with Oxford Economics, examined hospitality industry contribution to each of the 406 local authorities in England which they found is responsible annually for providing £46bn in wages and profits to local economies.
CPD in the Hospitality Industry
The Institute of Hospitality is the professional body for managers and aspirant managers working in the industry. The Institute formed in the 1930s in the UK but now has members spanning 100 countries across the world. The Institute of Hospitality requires members to complete CPD activities to ensure they continue as competent and knowledgeable. Members are encouraged to keep a log of CPD activities undertaken and can use resources and tools available through Institute of Hospitality membership.
The Hotel & Catering International Management Association (HCIMA) has introduced an inventive approach to Continuing Professional Development. HCIMA has developed a voluntary CPD scheme, based on a concept of an ‘Extended Curriculum Vitae’ (CV) that aims to maximise the benefits of CPD recording and minimise negatives. The scheme is voluntary at present but, as an expectation of good professional practice, would become mandatory for HCIMA members. The objective of this approach to CPD is to encourage HCIMA members to record development in an ‘Extended CV’ operating as a database of skills and achievements. An individual can record achievements in terms of education, CPD and experience, and can be updated regularly as CPD activities are completed.
Overview of the Human Resources Sector
It is estimated that around 100,000 people work in the fast-paced & constantly evolving human resources (HR) and personnel sector across the UK. Human Resources is the general term that covers a wide range of professional people-focused activities, which includes; employee relations/industrial relations, employment law, health and safety, payroll and pensions, performance and reward, recruitment and talent management, organisational development, training, coaching & professional development learning activities.
CPD in the Human Resources Sector
The Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) is the professional body for Human Resources, HR advice and people development. Membership of the CIPD is a recognised benchmark of professionalism within the sector, of which the CIPD requires a firm commitment to Continuing Professional Development from all its HR professional members.
The CIPD explains that as an HR professional you have a responsibility to keep skills and knowledge up to date, and that CPD helps to identify and achieve career objectives. As the leading professional body in the people management & development sector, the CIPD considers that the credibility of the HR profession is founded inescapably on the commitment of Human Resource professionals to regularly self-improve.
The CIPD expects HR members to set objectives for personal development, as well as chart and measure the outcomes and progress of learning throughout the year against objectives. The CPD policy of the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development states that members shall: maintain professional knowledge and competence seek appropriate support if business needs require involvement in new areas of activity ensure that they provide a professional, up to date and insightful service upon request provide evidence of compliance with this CPD policy.
Overview of the IT Sector
The UK provides one of the largest Information Technology sectors in the world. According to UK Trade & Industry, the UK IT sector is worth £58billion annually. Technology Insights states 1.5million people are now employed in the UK IT sector which provides an overall contribution of £81billion (9%) to the total UK economy.
However, the IT sector encounters challenges as does any other industry sector. As Information Technology becomes more crucial to everyday life, the sector is pushed to make IT more ”real-time” and “user-friendly”, and consumerism drives thinking to expect more from IT whilst demanding to pay less. It is generally accepted that the IT sector has achieved levels of maturity over recent decades in line with more traditional industries, and a significant provider to the UK economy. Yet there has also been a shift in mind-set that IT innovation is now considered a normal evolutionary progression rather than a revolutionary shift in the way we live.
Similar to any industry the UK IT sector is not safe from the threats of, as both location & national boundaries obstructions diminish, and high-skilled labour becomes readily available across the globe at significantly varied scales of cost. Continuous investment in technological education is vital to maintain a competitive advantage from both a micro & macro-economic perspective.
CPD in the IT Sector
The IT sector is the umbrella expression for a vast range of varying skillsets and expertise. IT specialisms can include information systems analysis & design, databases & data management, computer cyber security, risk management, data analytics, computer games development, hardware support, network administration, IT consultancy, IT sales, software engineering, technical support, telecommunications, web design, app development & search engine optimisation.
According to Technology Insights (2011), the UK economy will require over 500,000 new IT professionals over the next 5 years working across all industry sectors. It is estimated that over 40% of IT professionals work supporting other industries such as finance, legal, retail, construction, manufacturing and the public sector. Traditional career paths do still exist in the IT sector although many typical progression routes are changing. Over the last two decades, the IT industry has encompassed highly skilled work with advanced technological developments. It may be necessary to change jobs frequently, building up experience and using learnt business skills to keep progress on careers. A balanced combination of high-level technical skills and the necessary soft skills are likely to be more successful in advancing careers.
BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT (BCS) states “CPD is not an add-on, but an essential component of your professionalism. It is part of the professional competence and integrity of all members to actively engage with CPD, as stated in our Code of Conduct.” BCS has moved away from a traditional hours-based CPD system to a reflective learning process that can cover the wide variety of learning activities that can develop professional capabilities.
Overview of the Legal Sector
With changes to regulations and legislation, fast moving working environments and ongoing improvements to best practice, it will always be important for professionals working in the legal sector to maintain a structured approach to Continuing Professional Development. CPD is highly developed across the legal sector for all levels of law-related roles.
The practice of CPD provides reassurance that law professionals are maintaining competencies, and are further enhancing their skills and knowledge. CPD is not just restricted to technical advancements such as legislation changes, but also embraces areas of personal development such as essential management skills, general business training and client customer services.
CPD for Solicitors
Since 1985, the Solicitors Regulation Authority have operated a compulsory Continuing Professional Development scheme for solicitors in the UK. Over the years, the solicitor CPD scheme has evolved into a system guided by simple principles of flexibility and practical development.
CPD Requirements for Solicitors – All solicitors and registered European lawyers (RELs) who are in legal practice or employment in England and Wales, and work 32 hours or more per week are required to complete a minimum of 16 hours of CPD per year; at least 25 per cent must consist of participation in accredited training courses. For solicitors and RELs who work fewer than 32 hours per week, the requirements are reduced. The CPD scheme is compulsory for solicitors. Non-compliance can lead to disciplinary procedures and/or to delays in the issue of a practising certificate. Solicitors must keep a record of all CPD training undertaken, and may be asked to provide a copy of their record to the Solicitors Regulation Authority from time to time. This is stipulated by Part 5 of the SRA Training Regulations 2011 – CPD Regulations.
CPD for Legal Executives
The CPD year runs by calendar year of which Fellows and Associate Prosecutors are required to complete a minimum of 16 CPD hours, Graduate members are required to complete a minimum of 12 CPD hours and Associate members are required to complete a minimum of 8 CPD hours.
Additional CPD cannot be carried over to the following year. CPD requirements for legal executives have changed, and in 2014 legal executives were required to complete an additional professionalism element. Legal executives are now required to undertake the professionalism element alongside their hours based CPD requirements. The professionalism element will not be measured in hours but rather in terms of outcomes.
CPD in the Legal Sector
Individuals working in the legal sector are encouraged to take full responsibility for their own Continuing Professional Development by choosing from a wide range of CPD activities that can be pursued in order to meet the annual CPD requirement.
CPD for Barristers
All practising barristers are required to complete Continuing Professional Development. CPD for barristers is captured in CPD hours. Barristers are required to complete CPD record cards and return these to the Bar Standards Board annually.
CPD Requirements for Barristers – Failure to complete the required number of CPD hours for barristers can result in a finding of misconduct. Newly qualified barristers are required to complete 45 hours of CPD learning in their first 3 years, followed by 12 hours of structured CPD each year thereafter. The Bar Standards Board established a working group to review CPD for barristers and began a consultation process in its report in June 2011. Further details can be found on the Bar Standards Board website.
CPD is mandatory for barristers, and all practising members of the Bar are subject to Continuing Professional Development regulations. Compliance is an obligation of the Code of Conduct (para. 202b). Newly qualified barristers should complete CPD hours in advocacy training as well as ethics (the New Practitioners’ Programme).
CPD for Paralegals
In 2005 the Institute of Paralegals implemented a mandatory CPD training scheme. Paralegals are required to complete a number of CPD learning hours every year to comply.
CPD Requirements for Paralegals – Compliance with paralegal CPD is a condition of membership for individual members. The requirement is to accumulate 12 CPD training hours each year. The requirement is reduced on a pro-rata basis for those joining part-way through a CPD year, those on maternity leave and the long term ill. Failure to meet paralegal CPD requirements can result in membership being cancelled.
CPD for Conveyancers
A licensed conveyancer must complete a minimum of 12 hours CPD in recognised courses in each licence year in which they hold a full licence. The licence year runs from 1 November to the following 31 October. This requirement shall prevail where a full licence takes effect immediately upon the expiration of a limited licence.
CPD in the Marine sector
Overview of the Marine Industry
The UK Marine industry is typically split into four key sectors: commercial, offshore renewables, naval and leisure, but also encompasses a number of smaller sectors. According to the Marine Industries Alliance the combined marine sector includes over 5000 businesses, generating approximately £10billion of turnover and employs over 90,000 people in the UK.
CPD in the Marine Industry
Continuing Professional Development is defined by The Nautical Institute as, “The process that enables maritime professionals to take control of their own learning and development by carrying out activities that ensure they are competent and successful throughout their career, both at sea and ashore”. The Nautical Institute says that Continuing Professional Development has always been a central responsibility of the Institute, and remains one of the most important reasons for membership.
The Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology (IMarEST) is the international membership body for marine professionals that brings together marine engineers, marine scientists and marine technologists into one international multi-disciplinary professional body. The IMarEST promotes “the scientific development of marine engineering, science and technology, providing opportunities for the exchange of ideas and practices and upholding the status, standards and expertise of marine professionals worldwide.” CPD is a fundamental element to IMarEST and members are required to complete CPD or risk being removed from membership.
The International Institute of Marine Surveying (IIMS) promotes the professionalism, recognition and training of marine surveyors worldwide. Members of the IMMS are required to complete CPD as part of membership, and must achieve a minimum of twenty four points accrued over a fixed three year period.
CPD in the Media sector
Overview of the Media Industry
The move to digital media from more traditional methods is creating shifts in the skillsets required to succeed in the media, advertising and entertainment industries. The UK has a £16.7billion advertising, media and marketing communications industry, with PWC estimating that the total entertainment and media industry is to be worth £63billion by 2016. The UK publishing industry is the second largest in Europe, and provides jobs for 164,000 people, approximately 0.6 per cent of the UK workforce.
CPD in the Media Sector
The Institute of Direct & Digital Marketing (IDDM) explains that maintaining your Continuing Professional Development helps acquire personal qualities required throughout life and recognises ongoing professional advancement. CPD can increase personal satisfaction from work and help improve the contribution made to the success of organisations. The IDDM requires members to complete a minimum of 35 hours CPD per year to maintain sufficiently high standards of professional competence.
The Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) requires all members to complete CPD, which must equate to at least 60 points and be submitted by 28th February each year. Wherever possible evidence of completing CPD must be logged, and can include certificates of attendance, results certificate for examinations or courses completed, and confirmation letters from the CPD event organisers. The CIPR considers Continuing Professional Development as part of being a professional, and as helping to ‘build the skills to meet tomorrow’s challenges’.
CPD in the Military sector
Overview of the Military Sector
In a dynamic and uncertain world, with increasing global competition, areas of political unrest and changes driven by technology, ensuring successful national security through sustainable investment, innovation and a highly-skilled trained workforce becomes ever more vital. The UK Defence sector is a world-class leader within the global industry, providing essential services, support and technologies to our Armed Forces around the world, contributing significantly to the support of international collaboration and trade opportunities.
The UK military and defence sector employs over 300,000 individuals spread over 9,000 companies. According to the Defence Growth Partnership (2014), which is a strategic partnership between the Government and the Defence Industry, well over 100,000 people are working directly in the industry, in high value, high-tech jobs, with a turnover of more than £22 billion a year.
The UK is the 2nd largest defence exporter in the world, with sales over £8 billion and a market share of 20%, second only to the US. 10% of the total UK manufacturing industry is estimated to be made up by defence sector contracts, with the UK biggest customer being the British Government itself.
CPD in the Military Sector
Major General N H Eeles CBE, Chairman of the Royal Artillery Centre for Personal Development states “Personal Development is for everyone; it is not limited by rank, location or trade.”
The Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA) requires members to maintain and develop their professional competence and knowledge. The requirement is obligatory, with guidelines recommending what should be done. Continuing Professional Development is measured specifically in hours, and recommendations are made for the amount that a specific type of CPD activity can count towards the overall requirement. CPD activities should be recorded and validated with supporting evidence of training completed, using a CPD certificates and a personal record form.
CPD in the Politics sector
Overview of the Politics Sector
The United Kingdom has a long history as a major protagonist in international affairs and politics. The UK remains a significant political, economic, cultural and military influence around the world. Having started the twentieth century with a commanding global empire, the UK has had to redefine its position in the world in the light of an ever changing political landscape.
Changes in legislation, new political leadership and policies, cuts in spending or new investments, as well as external socio-economic influences all effect the ways in which individuals, businesses and organisations work within society. Each must continuously adapt to the evolving political environment, making the most of new opportunities and working within a context of practicable constraints.
CPD in the Politics Sector
The vision of politics is to inspire communities, take responsibility for group social areas of impact and necessity, and drive forward a consensus for a better future for the people and demographics that political power represents. Courses and training in the political sector typically cover political analysis, policy making, political theory, lobbying, ethics, campaigning & campaign funding, debating, influencing skills and network-building, bilateral and multilateral negotiating, speech writing, reporting, as well as media coaching and public speaking skills.
The Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom was founded in 1950, with the main objective to promote the development of political studies and encourage education and learning improvement in the art and science of government, as well as in other divisions of political sciences.
CPD in the Property sector
Overview of the Property Sector
The UK property sector requires a variety of skills, involved in all aspects of property across commercial, industrial, residential and agricultural sectors. The property industry is a diverse sector employing individuals across a range of sub-sectors including architecture, surveying, facilities management, planning, engineering, environment, development & management, investment, lettings & sales. According to Open University, there are approximately 360,000 people employed in the UK property and housing sectors working in over 105,000 organisations.
According to the IPF Size and Structure of UK Property Market, the total value of UK commercial property, which covers the three main sectors of retail, offices and industrials along with hotels, pubs and restaurants, leisure and miscellaneous types was estimated at £647bn in mid-2013. These sectors generate £50bn of rental income on an average yield of 7.8%. By value, 45% of this property is retail including pubs and restaurants, 28% is offices, whilst 18% and almost 9% respectively are industrial and ‘other commercial’. London now accounts for a little over a third of total value.
The total value of the UK’s residential stock is estimated to be £4,615bn (2013), seven times the size of the commercial property value. Almost all of this is privately owned, mainly by owner-occupiers but including about £837bn in the private rented sector. Housing associations, local and central government and their agencies account for about only £200bn of residential property value.
CPD in the Property Sector
The Association of Residential Lettings Agents (ARLA) states Continuing Professional Development is an integral part of ARLA membership. CPD ensures members are up to date and continually evolving their knowledge of an ever changing industry and market. CPD is mandatory for all ARLA members who are required to undertake at least 12 hours CPD activity per year. Evidence of at least 12 hours CPD must be provided annually.
CPD is integral to the Institution of Commercial and Business Agents (ICBA) membership. ICBA states that Continuing Professional Development is intended to be tailored to personal needs, and should help to improve key areas as a property professional. CPD comprises of 4 hours attendance at relevant educational events and 8 hours independent study.
As from 1 January 2011, the Institute of Residential Property Managers (IRPM) has made CPD requirements compulsory to members and require the undertaking and recording of at least 15 hours CPD per year.
All Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) members must complete a minimum of 20 hours CPD each calendar year, of which at least 10 hours must be considered formal CPD, a structured learning activity with clear learning objectives.
Members of the Association of Professional Inventory Providers (APIP) are encouraged to complete at least 12 hours CPD activity per year, of which 4 hours should be obtained by attendance at relevant educational events and up to 8 hours by relevant study.
CPD in the Public sector
Overview of the Public Sector
The UK public sector is a major component of the total UK economy. According to Open University research, public expenditure in 2008/09 amounted to £618bn and constituted 48% of GDP. The public sector employs just under 6 million personnel (approx. 19% of total UK workforce) and is responsible for the delivery of a wide range of public services including: pensions and benefits (28%), health (18%), emergency services, law enforcement, and education (13%).
According to the National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO), the UK voluntary sector contributes £11.7 billion to the UK economy, and employs approximately 765,000 (2.7%) of the total 27.9million UK workforce.
CPD in the Public Sector
In the public sector, the aim of CPD is to ensure that those who work in the field develop and maintain the necessary knowledge, skills and attributes to work effectively towards improving overall objectives. The public sector has always been expected to demonstrate value for money and improved efficiency while delivering a high quality service across all areas of responsibility.
The increase of prevalence of CPD in society has been driven by a mantra for accountability and business performance, and in many contexts to raise quality standards. The pressures of globalisation, and the need for public sector transparency have shaped governmental direction towards the structured provision of CPD. The continuing interdependence of public and private sector has driven an increased demand for public CPD programs to reflect the standards seen in other professional service sectors.
The Chartered Institute of Public Finance & Accountancy (CIPFA) require all members to complete 120 hours of CPD activities over a three-year period with a minimum of 20 hours CPD in each year. The FDA is the professional association and union for the UK's senior public servants and professionals. The FDA has membership of more than 18,000 senior managers, policy advisors, diplomats, tax professionals, economists, solicitors, prosecutors and other professionals working across Government and the NHS.
The FDA is committed to helping promote and facilitating the Continuing Professional Development of managers and professionals in the public service.