Overview of the Finance Industry
A wide range of professionals across the finance sector are required to complete Continuing Professional Development. CPD is a mandatory obligation to many professional bodies and associations, which includes accountants, tax and financial advisers, wealth planners, investments specialists and insurance professionals
CPD for Accountants
Accountancy CPD requirements can vary from 20 hours per annum up to 45 hours depending on both the accountancy specialism and the specific requirements of the institutional body concerned. The main Accountancy professional bodies requiring CPD include the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), Association of International Accountants (AIA), Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) and the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales (ICAEW).
CPD in the Finance Sector
Finance and Accountancy professionals should identify what additional skills are required to carry out their role effectively as well as build a CPD framework towards future career ambitions. CPD obligations vary within the finance & accountancy sector from 12 hours for a qualifying Institute of Financial Services student up to 35+ hours for fully qualified financial advisers, tax specialists, professional auditors, certified accountants and investments specialists. CPD is not restricted to solely technical advancement, but should also embrace training such as essential management, business and people skills.
CPD for Tax Specialists
Professionals working within the tax area of the finance sector have mandatory CPD requirements to complete every year, of which 15 hours must be obtained from a structured training environment for members of the Association of Tax Technicians, and 20 hours for members of the Chartered Institute of Taxation.
CPD for Finance & Investment Advisers
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has prescribed a minimum amount of CPD per year for finance and investment professionals. For example, the Institute of Financial Services (IFS) expects finance professionals to complete a minimum of 35 hours CPD learning every 12 months, of which 21 hours should be obtained from a structured training environment.
CPD for Auditors & Actuarial Professionals
Both auditors and actuarial professionals are required to complete regular CPD in order to maintain competencies
CPD for Insurance Specialists
All qualified members of the Chartered Insurance Institute (CII) are required to comply with the CII CPD scheme. Finance professionals working within the Insurance sector are typically expected to complete a minimum 35 hours of CPD (21 hours must be structured CPD) every year matching the annual requirements set by the Financial Conduct Authority.
CPD in the Agriculture & Veterinary sector
Overview of the Agriculture & Veterinary Industry
At June 2012 the Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) was 17.2 million hectares, making up 70 per cent of the total United Kingdom land area. In the UK there are approximately 300,000 active farms with an average size of around 57 hectares. The total farming labour force of 534,000 in 2006 had been broadly stable over the previous five years but was down 80,000 on a decade earlier (www.gov.uk). The veterinary sector is predominantly a science-based profession. The health and welfare of the 20 million pets in the UK is dependent on solid veterinary research & development, and the health and productivity of the more than 36 million of UK breeding stock relies on the expertise of the veterinary sector.
CPD for Vets / Veterinary Surgeons
CPD is a personal obligation of all responsible vets & veterinary surgeons and should be seen as the continuous progression of capability and competence. The recommended minimum CPD completed by a veterinary surgeon is 105 hours over a rolling three year period, averaging at 35 hours per year. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons states “There is more to CPD than undertaking a Certificate or Diploma. CPD is much broader than veterinary medicine and surgery. CPD that is relevant and of benefit to any aspect of a veterinary surgeon’s professional life may be considered to be appropriate and recordable CPD. For example, practice and other management skills, stress management and communication skills are as important as other forms of CPD that relate more directly to veterinary medicine and surgery.”
CPD in the Agriculture & Veterinary Industry
Whilst CPD has always been extremely prevalent in the veterinary field, CPD is now becoming increasingly widespread across all areas of the agriculture sector. Accrediting organisations in the arable, pig, poultry and dairy sectors have been set up to promote and encourage professional standards in farming, and encourage the uptake of Continuing Professional Development. In 2011, the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Advanced Training Partnerships (ATPs) were developed to provide professional development in the area of agriculture and food production for a large number of industry specialists across the UK. Collaboration between training providers and industry partners aims to ensure that high level skills relevant to crops, livestock and food are employed throughout the sector. This development helps to ensure that research done by highly skilled scientists can benefit farmers by being translated into new technologies, practices and advice.
CPD for Veterinary Nurses
Veterinary Nurses are obliged to maintain and continue to develop their professional knowledge and skills. Continuing Professional Development is mandatory for all registered veterinary nurses. The required minimum CPD is 45 hours in any three-year period with an average of 15 hours per year.
CPD for Agriculture Professionals
Agricultural professionals are now expected to commit to a programme of Continuing Professional Development so that they stay up-to-date with all the latest developments Members of the National Register of Sprayer Operators are required to collect 30 or more CPD points in each three-year period to qualify for membership renewal Members of the Pig Industry Professional Register are required to achieve a minimum of 60 CPD points during their three year term of membership.
Overview of the Business Sector
The business sector is a vast field covering an array of both general and specialist areas of expertise and skills. New technologies and the growth of the digital environment, changes in working practice, the perspective of consumer demand and customer service, as well as the ongoing advancement of globalisation, creates new dynamic challenges for the entire business community and the managers & business professionals working within the sector.
As the business sector naturally evolves, as will the need for high skilled business managers & leaders with the skillsets to steer their industry’s forward. However, with this also comes the increase in competition for job roles and functions, and the need for upskilling, practical experienced-based training & education.
CPD for Managers & Directors
Chartered Directors and Managers at both the Chartered Management Institute (CMA) and Institute of Directors (IoD) are expected to complete Continuing Professional Development. A Chartered Director is expected to undertake approximately 30 hours CPD per year, whereas a Charted Manager at the CMA does not have a fixed CPD annual hours requirement but is expected to maintain ongoing CPD records ready for inspection by the professional body.
CPD in the Business Sector
Business professionals who manage their own personal performance can very easily set themselves apart from their competition. CPD can bring direct benefit to both the individual and the organisation as a whole. CPD in the business sector embodies a wide range of formal & informal training, comprising a whole assortment of business skill areas including; sales & marketing, communications, strategy & planning, customer service, public speaking, negotiation skills, leadership, time & project management, as well as many others. CPD enables an individual to build a full portfolio of talents which increases commercial awareness, improves general business acumen and allows any professional manager to bring their very best to the business decision-making process to shape the direction of their organisation. CPD can enable business teams to maximise their performance through collaboration and knowledge sharing. Diversifying business skills provides greater organisational flexibility, and promotes a culture of learning which naturally improves workforce motivation and organisational achievement.
CPD enables an individual to build a full portfolio of talents which increases commercial awareness, improves general business acumen and allows any professional manager to bring their very best to the business decision-making process to shape the direction of their organisation. CPD can enable business teams to maximise their performance through collaboration and knowledge sharing. Diversifying business skills provides greater organisational flexibility, and promotes a culture of learning which naturally improves workforce motivation and organisational achievement.
CPD for Project Managers
The Association of Project Management (APM) considers CPD fundamental to business, and requires Project Managers to complete 35 hours of CPD each year in order to maintain Chartered status.
CPD for Sales & Marketing Professionals
Marketing professionals at the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) have been set a 35 hour annual CPD target through which members should record and document their learning & training activities on a personal CPD record form. The Institute of Sales and Marketing Management recommends sales & marketing professionals complete at least 20 CPD points each year to maintain existing skills and further recommends up to 40 CPD points per year to truly build on existing skillsets.
Overview of the Construction Industry
The construction industry contributed £103 billion to the economy in 2014, which equates to 6.5% of the UK total. The industry employs over 2.1 million people, an impressive 6.3% of total employment. Construction is an extremely large industry, complex and diverse, covering a wide range of activities including house-builders, commercial property developers, designers & architects, materials producers, technicians, specifiers, manufacturers, suppliers, contractors and consultants ("www.parliament.uk":http://www.parliament.uk, No: 01432, 6 Aug 2015).
The Department for Business Innovation & Skills UK Construction Economic Analysis Report (July, 2013) states that the construction industry is one of the largest sectors in the UK but is significantly more fragmented than its main European competitors. Major factors that are creating change in the sector include the ongoing movement towards a globalised market, demand for sustainable development and the technological growth of emerging economies.
CPD in the Construction Industry
The CPD Certification Service works alongside the construction sector to ensure training courses, seminars and learning activities are compatible with Continuing Professional Development policies of the industry. CPD has been long-established within the sector, with all of the industry professional bodies having longstanding CPD requirements in place.
All members of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing & Heating Engineers (CIPHE) are required to participate in Continuing Professional Development, and are currently recommended to obtain 30 hours of CPD on an annual basis. The Chartered Association of Building Engineers (CABE) states that CPD is an essential part of personal development that helps maintain professional status and facilitates learning new ideas from fellow professionals. CABE members are required to complete 35 hours of CPD each year.
The Association of Project Managers (APM) have integrated CPD into the APM FIVE Dimensions of Professionalism, ensuring there is a commitment from all members to lifelong learning. APM members are required to complete 35 hours of CPD from both formal and informal training environments. Chartered Institute of Housing (CIH) members are required to complete at least 20 hours of CPD each year, and the Chartered Institute of Highways & Transportation expect members to obtain at least 25 hours of CPD, spread over a 3 year period.
From an architectural standpoint, both the Chartered Institute of Architectural Technologists (CIAT) and the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) require members to comply with a minimum number of 35 CPD hours each year, of which at least 50% should come from a structured training environment.
CPD in the Design sector
Overview of the Design Industry
The design industry is a vast and varied sector covering a wide range of specialisms including communications design, digital and multimedia design, product, graphics and branding, fashion as well as interior, industrial and architectural design. The UK Design Council states there are over 230,000 designers working in UK, with a combined fee income of over £15bn. As globalisation dissolves market boundaries and naturally increases competition throughout all industries, the design sector continues to thrive through its principles of innovation and creativity.
CPD for Marketers, Digital Marketing & Design
The Institute of Direct & Digital Marketing (IDM) explains “Learning does not stop once you are qualified. Ongoing development must be a high priority, managed in a structured, progressive way. Maintaining CPD is an individual decision marking personal commitment to self-improvement. CPD should not be seen as an additional set of activities to your normal duties and desired learning achievements. CPD is about your awareness and attention to what is important in order to achieve the highest standards in work to ultimately fulfil career potential.”
CPD in the Design Industry
CPD plays an increasingly prevalent role in the design sector as the UK industry evolves further into a knowledge-based economy. The Design Council estimates that approximately 77% of all CPD training within the design sector is completed through a structured learning environment, either computer-based learning, external courses and/or attending events and conferences. Competition and innovation are interrelated with the need for high-skilled professionals, and with this the Design Council states that over half of designers in the UK now hold at least an undergraduate degree. Whilst only 13% of designers take regular formal training, almost four in every ten design consultancies expect new recruits to have completed an undergraduate degree.
CPD for Architectural Design Professionals
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) recommends to get the greatest benefit from CPD an architectural design professional should implement a regular cycle of planning, development and reflection on what has been learnt and how this knowledge is put into practice.
CPD for Interior Design
British Institute of Interior Design (BIID) members are required to accrue a minimum of 20 CPD points each year, which are recorded by the BIID, to demonstrate commitment to furthering knowledge and competence in the industry. The Society of British and International Design (SBID) requires all Accredited Members to undertake Continuing Professional Development to maintain registered status. The SBID believe CPD makes an important contribution to supporting Interior Designers to maintain standards and to protect consumers.
Overview of the Education Sector
Schools, colleges and universities play a vital role in the development of all industries, as the standards of our education system sets the benchmark for future business innovation, change and a professional skilled workforce. The education sector through all ranges and demographics is central to the long-term success of the UK, feeding a continuous flow of high-skilled and knowledgeable individuals for all other industry sectors.
CPD in the Education Sector
The teaching profession, like many other industries, has recognised the need for training in order to keep abreast with new ideas and methodologies. Surprisingly though, CPD is not as clearly defined nor structured as one might expect. Christine Blower, the General Secretary of the National Union of Teachers, said: “Securing the Continuing Professional Development of teachers remains a challenge for the education sector. It is a policy that no government has yet got right. Establishing a right CPD would bring a principle that has had productive effects in other countries. It would serve to strengthen the long-term commitment of teachers.”
Furthermore the Confederation of British Industry explains that “strengthening CPD and career opportunities are crucial strands in re-motivating teachers and improving practice and, as a result, education outcomes. We also need to get away from the feeling that CPD is something ‘done’ to teachers as they are professionals and part of that professionalism should be a sense of personal ownership of development.”
The Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education (ACME) summarise in their report on Continuing Professional Development that the Government should initiate urgently a process of developing & funding a long-term programme of CPD for teachers of mathematics that meets their needs at various stages of their careers.
A new importance has been placed on Continuing Professional Development for teachers in Scotland. CPD is now a statutory component of a teachers’ working life, and with this the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) has released new guidance for teachers looking to engage effectively in the process of CPD. The GTCS explains, “If teachers are to maintain and enhance their professional practice, teachers will need to be making effective use of their CPD. CPD is what you do to keep your professional practice fresh, up-to-date and stimulating. Effective CPD provides the reward of greater professional satisfaction. The more teachers feel this way, the greater the positive impact will be on the ethos in schools and on the profession. Teachers in Scotland are required to undertake 35 hours of CPD per year, based on a mix of personal and school or local authority needs.”
Overview of the Energy Sector
The energy sector is a highly innovative and expansive industry with a sustained focus for alternative power sources, renewable energy solutions and the balance between growing energy demands with local global environment challenges. The UK energy sector employs over 680,000 in a varied array of professions, from oil & gas engineers to nuclear scientists. EU Skills Research states the UK will need to employ another 200,000 people by 2023 to keep up with industry growth and demand.
Over the last 10 years, the UK has made a transition from being a net exporter of energy to having more than 25% of UK energy now imported. The main energy sources for the UK are approximated as Natural Gas & Oil (41%), Coal (31%), Nuclear (18%), Renewables (9%) and other (1%).
Renewable Energy Sector
Renewable energy uses the natural environment to make electricity. Renewable energies include include wind, wave, hydro, biomass and solar power. Renewable energy technologies produce approximately 9% of the UK’s electricity, and EU targets mean that this is likely to increase to 30% by 2020. Renewable energy will become a critical player in the strategy to reduce carbon emissions.
Nuclear Energy Sector
Currently, approximately 18% of UK electricity is provided by nuclear power from the use of 19 reactors across 10 locations. By 2025, the UK is expected to be supplied with around 25% of its energy from nuclear power. In June 2011, eight sites across Britain were chosen as locations for new nuclear stations.
CPD in the Energy Sector
The Code of Conduct maintained by the Energy Institute requires members to make a commitment to Continuing Professional Development. If Energy Institute qualifications are held by any professional under licences from the Engineering Council, Science Council or Society for the Environment, that member must abide by these professional bodies’ regulations for general conduct and CPD requirements. All professional Energy Institute members are expected to keep full records of their CPD. The Energy Institute does not stipulate the minimum number of CPD hours which must be undertaken, but instead, encourage members to focus on the value of learning in relation to their professional development needs. Each year a sample of members will be asked to submit their CPD records for review.
All professional Energy Institute members are expected to keep full records of their CPD. The Energy Institute does not stipulate the minimum number of CPD hours which must be undertaken, but instead, encourage members to focus on the value of learning in relation to their professional development needs. Each year a sample of members will be asked to submit their CPD records for review.
CPD for Energy Assessors
All accredited Energy Assessors are expected to complete 21 hours of CPD every year, of which 10 hours should be obtained in areas of their primary specialism. CPD recording is the responsibility of each individual, with objectives being logged combined with the sum of all hours of learning split between structured and unstructured CPD.
The Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) states, “CPD is a mandatory requirement of the CIBSE Certification Personnel Certification Schemes. Members of these schemes are required to update and enhance their skills continuously to ensure that they keep up with technological developments and the requirements of the Building Regulations and the Energy Performance of Buildings regulations in the UK.”
Overview of the Engineering Industry
Continuing Professional Development is a fundamental part of any career within all disciplines of engineering and ensures engineers keep up to date by improving their skills & knowledge on a regular basis. The Engineering Council states that all members of professional engineering institutions within the engineering sector have obligations to undertake CPD. One of the main functions of the engineering professional bodies is to support the improvement & development of their members. The professional engineering institutions work alongside the Engineering Council to advise on CPD, by providing guidance, resources and mentoring programmes.
CPD in the Engineering Sector
CPD not only develops the engineering sector as a whole, but equally the individual career aspirations of engineers. Engineers are encouraged to take ownership of their learning & skills improvement, as well as their general development requirements. Engineers are advised to build a CPD plan and undertake various activities, record & reflect upon the learning, and evaluate any objectives met against their personal CPD plans. The aim of this CPD approach is to create a conscious attitude to learning that helps engineering professionals personally benefit, in addition to as their employers and society at large. CPD annual requirements vary depending on the engineering discipline placed in the context of the requirements of the institutional body concerned.
Overview of the Fire Industry
In the 2012 Fire Sector Summit, Fire Minister Brandon Lewis congratulated the fire industry for some considerable statistical reductions in fire fatalities and non-fatal casualties. From 2001-2002 to 2011-2012, fatalities and non-fatal casualties reduced 34% and 54% respectively, with total fires falling 6% to 227,000.
The Fire Industry Association (FIA), the largest trade association of the UK fire protection industry in a recent 2015 market conditions report detailed the fire sector continuing to grow which is resulting in an increased need for skilled labour and training. The report explains that 35% of fire industry companies have recruited skilled labour in the past six months, compared to 9% losing skilled people. Furthermore 58% of companies are anticipating an increase in training over the next six months. There is increasing competition in the fire industry, with margins being squeezed by increases in materials and supplier costs. Distinction and competitive advantage is becoming increasingly critical across the private sector of fire protection products and fire safety.
CPD in the Fire Sector
The Institution of Fire Engineers (IFE) has promoted the completion of Continuing Professional Development for all Fire Engineers since 1997, as a way to “further their knowledge, understanding and expertise”. Rather than a prescribed requirement, the IFE recommends as a guide that Fire Engineers complete at least 25 hours of appropriate learning activities through events and courses each year.
The IFE defines the purpose of CPD perfectly in the following; “The pace of technological and social development has quickened and the life span of information is short. Organisational structures typified by hierarchies, specialist departments, apprenticeship and the concept of a planned career for life are disappearing. They are being replaced by “flatter” structures with an emphasis on adaptability, flexibility, team work, personal judgement and the achievement of objectives. The public perception and expectation of professionals has changed leading to the personal characteristics of professionals being re-defined. This cultural change has affected education and training by putting increasing emphasis on competency, vocational training, workplace learning and CPD.”
The Institute of Fire Safety Managers explains that all members should complete Continuing Professional Development activities each year and, whilst this is currently on a voluntary basis, CPD should still be treated seriously and should start immediately when a member joins the Institute.
CPD in the Healthcare & Medical sector
Overview of the Healthcare & Medical Sector
Whether by professional body obligation or as a voluntary option, almost every professional within the medical & healthcare sectors undertakes some form of Continuing Professional Development. Many countries already have established CPD in the medical & healthcare sectors, with more countries taking steps towards a national CPD framework.
CPD can be defined as the continuing education of healthcare professionals following the completion of formal training. The Department of Health states; “In the NHS, CPD is determined through appraisals with personal development plans agreed between individuals and their managers. A key development in ensuring that healthcare professionals maintain their competence is the move among regulatory bodies to develop CPD strategies for the revalidation/re-certification of their members.”
CPD for the Healthcare & Medical Sector
There are over 30 professional bodies and associations within the healthcare & medical sectors all with implemented CPD policies. Professional bodies in the healthcare & medical sectors requiring CPD include; British Medical Association, General Medical Council, General Dental Council, British Dental Association, Royal College of Nursing, Institute of Nursing, Nurses & Midwives Council, British Psychological Society, Health and Care Professions Council, Royal College of Physicians, National Pharmaceutical Association and the General Optical Council.
The General Medical Council states;" Continuing Professional Development and Continuing Medical Education are frequently used interchangeably, most literature has now defined CME as being an ingredient of CPD. CPD is a process that includes continuing medical education. Many countries are now moving from a knowledge and skills-based CME system, towards a system that promotes the wide-ranging competencies needed to practice high quality medicine."
CPD for Doctors / Surgeons / Physicians
All licensed practicing doctors, surgeons and physicians are expected to complete annual CPD in order to keep up to date and be seen as fit for practice. Good medical practice requires doctors, surgeons and physicians to be responsible for identifying their CPD needs, plan how these are addressed, and partake in CPD activities which should maintain and improve the standards of their work.
Doctors must complete revalidation every 5 years, which includes providing evidence that CPD has been completed. Specific CPD requirements for specific professions such as for surgeons and physicians are outlined by the appropriate Royal Colleges of Medicine in their respective fields. Typically doctors, surgeons and physicians are expected to complete a minimum of 250 hours of CPD over a 5 year period, averaging out as 50 hours per annum.
CPD for Opticians / Optometrists
The General Optical Council states that fully-qualified optometrists and opticians must complete Continuing Education and Training (CET) on a scheme run over a 3 year period. Optometrists must complete 36 CET points over the 3 year period. Opticians and Optometrists are expected to manage their CET points over the 3 year period, completing a minimum of 6 CET points in any given year. However the number of points awarded for a CET activity does not relate to the time duration of the activity. CET points reflect the level of engagement required and the extent to which the activity supports reflection. The GOC example explains that peer discussion and clinical skills training would carry more CET points than attendance at lectures or article-based study.
CPD for Nurses / Nursing / Midwives
CPD is considered by the Royal College of Nursing as a fundamental element to the role of any nurse by which high quality patient care is identified, maintained and developed. The Royal College of Nursing considers 45 hours of CPD suitable in any given year, and the Nurses & Midwives Council state all midwives and nurses must undertake at least 35 hours of relevant learning every 3 years.
CPD for Dentists
Dentists and dental professionals are required to undertake Continuing Professional Development to maintain registration at the General Dental Council, which includes learning activities that contribute to professional development relevant to their practice, and maintains the GDC Standards of patient protection. Dentists must complete at least 250 hours of CPD every five years, of which 75 hours should be verifiable CPD in recommended topic areas. Dental Professionals must complete 150 hours of CPD every five years, of which 50 hours should be verifiable CPD in recommended topic areas.
CPD for Pharmaceutical / Pharmacists / Pharmacy
The General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC) is the regulator for pharmacists and pharmacy professionals in England, Scotland and Wales. The CPD requirements set by the GPhC apply equally to all pharmacy professionals. The GPhC encourages pharmacists & pharmaceutical professionals to complete a variety of learning over a five year period which includes both formal CPD and experiential learning. The scheme for pharmacy professionals focuses on the CPD cycle of reflection, planning, action and evaluation and expects pharmacists & pharmaceutical professionals to make at least nine entries in their CPD record per year.
CPD for Psychiatrists / Psychology
Psychiatrists are expected to complete 50 credits of CPD every year, and meet with an associated peer group for discussion at least 4 times per year. Of these 50 credits, Psychiatrists involved in clinical practice must complete 30 hours of clinical CPD from this quota. The British Psychology Society recommends members complete between ½ – 1 full days of CPD every month.
CPD in the Hospitality sector
Overview of the Hospitality Industry
The hospitality sector is a substantial contributor to the UK economy. For example, there are approximately 10,000 hotel businesses in the UK contributing to around £18 billion. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has calculated that hotels and restaurants, together with distribution, make up 18% of the entire UK services industry.
The British Hospitality Association (BHA) is the private sector forum for the 6th largest contributor to export earnings and 4th largest employer in the UK. Approximately 3 million people, or 10% of the workforce and over 180,000 businesses work within the overall UK hospitality industry. BHA, together with Oxford Economics, examined hospitality industry contribution to each of the 406 local authorities in England which they found is responsible annually for providing £46bn in wages and profits to local economies.
CPD in the Hospitality Industry
The Institute of Hospitality is the professional body for managers and aspirant managers working in the industry. The Institute formed in the 1930s in the UK but now has members spanning 100 countries across the world. The Institute of Hospitality requires members to complete CPD activities to ensure they continue as competent and knowledgeable. Members are encouraged to keep a log of CPD activities undertaken and can use resources and tools available through Institute of Hospitality membership.
The Hotel & Catering International Management Association (HCIMA) has introduced an inventive approach to Continuing Professional Development. HCIMA has developed a voluntary CPD scheme, based on a concept of an ‘Extended Curriculum Vitae’ (CV) that aims to maximise the benefits of CPD recording and minimise negatives. The scheme is voluntary at present but, as an expectation of good professional practice, would become mandatory for HCIMA members. The objective of this approac